Deze leeslijst bevat zowel historische als hedendaagse voorbeelden van definities van cyborgs in de populaire cultuur en wetenschappelijke bronnen.

A Cyborg Manifesto
Donna Haraway
1991, in: Haraway D., Simians, cyborgs, and women: the reinvention of nature.
Routledge, New York
View online: A Cyborg Manifesto

In her Cyborg Manifesto, Donna Haraway – the founding mother of cyborg writing and advocacy – promotes a post-gender society in which a third party, the cyborg, is able to bridge gaps and ignore typical Western dualistic boundaries. She urges to tear down boundaries rather than promote labels by unifying animals and humans, organisms and machines, and the physical and non-physical. According to Haraway, being cyborg is part of our nature of being, our ontology.

GUCCI CYBORG: A Chimeric World of Fluid Identities and Trend-Defying Fashion
Eric David
February 22, 2018
View online: Yatzer, online magazine

Models wearing baby dragons and replicas of their own heads strolling down a somewhat sanitized runway setting. Although some accused Alessandro Michele – head of design at fashion label Gucci – for cultural appropriation in his AW18/19 collection, on a deeper level his collection can be read as a visual (cyborg) manifesto that challenges the binary categorization of human identity.

Aimee Mullins on Disability, Design and Becoming an Alexander McQueen Muse
Whitney Bauck
February 26, 2018
View online: Fashionista, Breaking Media, New York

Within our current society, the human beings who are aided by technology in their physical ability are mostly considered to be non-normative. Within the realm of cyborgism, however, they are the norm. This interview with Aimee Mullins – athlete, actress, and model who lost both of her legs due to fibular hemimelia – discusses and dismantles the normative ideals of beauty.

De Cyborg als Ideaalmens
Anneke Smelik
In: Sociologie Magazine, jrg. 20 (2), juni 2016: p. 10-13
Nederlands / Dutch
Virtumedia, Zeist
View Online: De Cyborg als Ideaalmens

Over the years, science fiction movies have introduced us to many a representation of a cyborg – from Frankenstein’s monster and The Terminator to Her and Ex Machina. By means of discussing several examples of cyborg representations, Anneke Smelik indicates a shift in the imaging of the human-machine from an armoured macho towards a sensitive cyborg.

Everyday Love Stories
August de los Reyes
Winter 2017
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, New York
View online: Everyday Love Stories (page 6)

August de los Reyes is a former Microsoft designer who ended up in a wheelchair due to medical (human) error. In this short story he touches upon inclusive design, and how some of our most used innovations – the telephone, keyboard, email, and the bendable straw – were addressed by and intended for those with an ability difference.

Recommended reading: all the other articles in this edition of the Cooper Hewitt’s Design Journal.

Femke Snelting & Jara Rocha
2018, in: Braidotti, R. and Hlatajova, M. (eds.), The Posthuman Glossary
Bloomsbury Academic, London
View online: MakeHuman

The preset conditions for growing a virtual body can be quite restrictive. In this article, Femke Snelting and Jara Rocha explore MakeHuman: an Open Source software for modelling three-dimensional, photo-realistic humanoid characters. To be able to break from representational and agential normativities, software can and must provide the tools for wild combinations or unsuspected renders, according to Snelting and Rocha.

Lucy McRae – What Does it Mean to Be Human?
Irene Ramón
January 2018
View online: Metal Magazine (online)

Lucy McRae on what it means to be human and what power is vested in combining art, design, science, and fiction.

Cyborg morals, cyborg values, cyborg ethics
Kevin Warwick
2003, in: Ethics and Information Technology 5
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht
View Online: Cyborg morals, cyborg values, cyborg ethics

Kevin Warwick – a professor who bio-hacked his own body to test extrasensory communications – draws upon the ethical and moral dimensions of be(com)ing cyborg. He shares his experience of incorporating technology in his own body, whilst exploring and discussing the important ethical questions that arise within an era of human-machine symbiosis.

Lil’ Miquela’s Instagram Feed
Since the beginning of her Instagram account, Artificial Intelligent social media influencer Lil’ Miquela has been subjected to the challenges faced by many other (human) social media influencers. From her followers claiming she is a fake to an online feud with another virtual influencer; Lil’ Miquela’s Instagram feed can serve as a slightly different ‘read’ in this reading list.
View online:

Does Technology have Race?
David Hankerson, Andrea R. Marshall, Jennifer Booker, Houda El Mimouni, Imani Walker, Jennifer A. Rode
2016, conference paper for ACM CHI 2016
View online: Does Technology have Race?

How can we ensure that technology is unbiased? This paper shows examples of racial errors in technology and discusses how VSD (Value Sensitive Design), Representation in IT, and User Research can help to work toward a design practice that is racially inclusive.

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